Senza appartenere ad alcun luogo 1.0 (Italian Edition)
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Questi composti hanno un MW molto simile. Gli spettri 13 C sono caratterizzati da elevata risoluzione a causa del grande larghezza spettrale e l'applicazione di disaccoppiamento a banda larga, cheelimina l'effetto dell'accoppiamento scalare e produce singoletti. Esempio 1, EPA in posizione -2 sn: Risultati simili possono essere ottenuti dal calcolo dei coefficienti molecolari relativi dei APE sn -2 usando uno spettro completamente disaccoppiato.
Esempio 4, n -3 Ln: Esempio 5, acidi grassi trans: Figura 3 confronta l'spettri 1 H NMR di un campione di olio di pesce in due condizioni di ossidazione; esposizione al riscaldamento e l'esposizione a raggi ultravioletti UV leggero. L'analisi 1 H NMR. L'analisi 13 C NMR. Anche se la SPEctra registrato a L'assegnazione dello spettro 1 H NMR. Il 1 H-NMR spostamenti chimici di segnali di acidi grassi di olio di pesce che possono essere utilizzati per scopi di quantificazione in CDCl 3 soluzione sono presentati.
Gli spostamenti chimici sono misurati in ppm e forniscono informazioni sull'ambiente chimica dei nuclei. L'assegnazione dello spettro 13 C NMR. Gli spostamenti chimici 13 C-NMR dei segnali di acidi grassi di olio di pesce che possono essere utilizzati per la quantificazione purpsistemi operativi in CDCl 3 soluzione sono presentati. Confronto tra il 13 C NMR spettri acquisiti utilizzando la banda larga standard di disaccoppiamento A e l'inverso gated disaccoppiamento B sequenze di impulsi. Gli spettri sono stati registrati per lo stesso campione con lo stesso numero di scansioni, elaborata con gli stessi parametri di processo e vengono indicati con lo stesso fattore di scala.
Si prega di cliccare qui per scaricare questa cifra. Nella maggior parte dei casi, il "rga" comando calcola un valore rg appropriato. Intal caso, l'utente dovrebbe immettere manualmente un valore minore rg digitando "rg valore " nella linea di comando. Oltre alle analisi di olio di pescecampioni ricche di trigliceridi ed esteri etilici, NMR possono essere utilizzati per l'analisi dei campioni di olio di pesce ricchi di fosfolipidi PL. Per l'analisi di questi campioni, una miscela solvente di cloroformio deuterato: CD 3 OD in un rapporto di Altri composti come 1,2,4,5-tetracloronitrobenzene TCNB o cloruro di etilene possono essere utilizzati anche come standard interni alternative, tuttavia, sono caratterizzati da valori superiori T 1.
Tali segnali devono appartenere a un componente specifico campione e devono avere alcuna interferenza con i segnali provenienti da altri composti. Ulteriori errori quantificazioni possono insorgere quando si utilizza uno standard interno grazie alla purezza incerto dello standard interno e da errori di pesatura. Tutti i composti analizzati in olio di pesce con NMR possono essere quantificati simultaneamente in un'istantanea senza utilizzare alcuna procedura di separazione o di purificazione.
Va notato, tuttavia, che ci sono alcuni fattori che influenzano il tempo di acquisizione dei dati. A volte maggiore del tempo sperimentale dovrebbe essere previsto per analisi 13 C NMR quando la temperatura ambiente convenzionali vengono usate sonde. Inoltre, NMR ha diversi vantaggi rispetto ad altri metodi analitici. Oltre alla determinazionedei principali composti nell'olio di pesce, diversi prodotti di ossidazione primari e secondari nell'olio di pesce, come aldeidi e perossidi, sono presenti. Se tutte le risonanze nello spettro non hanno completamente rilassato prima di ciascun impulso, il segnale viene parzialmente soppressa e questo porta ad imprecisioni nel dell'integrazione.
Un confronto tra spettri acquisiti con le due sequenze di impulsi viene mostrata in Figura S1. You must be signed in to post a comment. Please sign in or create an account. Skip to content Chemistry. Your institution must subscribe to JoVE's Chemistry section to access this content. Fill out the form below to receive a free trial or learn more about access: Preparazione del campione NMR Nota: Registrare il peso dell'olio di pesce.
Analizzare i campioni entro 24 ore dopo la preparazione dei campioni. Preparazione per l'acquisizione del spettri NMR Nota: Attendere che il segnale del deuterio di CDCl 3 per apparire sullo schermo la finestra di blocco. Se non viene visualizzata automaticamente, digitare "lockdisp". Digitare il comando "nuovo" per creare un nuovo set di dati. Fai clic su "OK". Tipo "getprosol" nella riga di comando per ottenere i parametri standard per la sonda NMR corrente e solvente.
Digitare il comando "atma" per eseguire la sintonizzazione automatica e la congruenza della sonda per entrambi i nuclei di carbonio e protoni. Eseguire gradiente unidimensionale spessoramento per ottenere un campo magnetico molto omogenea, e quindi forma di linea ottimale per i segnali NMR. Utilizzare la procedura automatica standard per 1D spessoramento, semplicemente sequenzialmente eseguire i comandi "qu topshim 1dfast ss", "qu topshim tuneb ss," e "qu topshim rapporto" sulla linea di comando.
Selezionare durata dell'impulso, p1, come il parametro da modificare. Iniziamo con "2" ms come valore iniziale di p1, immettere "2" ms incrementi ed eseguire esperimenti "16". Creare un nuovo set di dati per 13 C vedere fase 2. Creare un nuovo set di dati per 1 H vedere i passi 2. Digitare i seguenti comandi sul command linea per impostare la larghezza spettrale in ppm, al centro del trasmettitore RF, il numero di scansioni del numero di dummy scan e il numero di punti di dati "SW 8", "O1P 3.
Impostare il ritardo di riciclo per un valore molto grande, come ad esempio 10 s digitando "d1 10". Impostare tau per un breve valore, ad esempio 10 ms, 10 ms digitando "d7" nella riga di comando. Impostare il guadagno del ricevitore RG ad un valore appropriato utilizzando il "rga" comando per il calcolo automatico del RG.
Eseguire uno spettro digitando il comando "zg". Eseguire Fourier-trasformazione digitando "EFP"nella linea di comando. Eseguire la correzione di fase automatica digitando il comando "apk" nella linea di comando. T 1 misura misurata con il metodo nullo 16 per 13 C Creare un nuovo set di dati per 13 C vedi punto 2. In addition, by adjusting sampling software ArcGIS Technological advances and imals, wild ungulates, other carnivores and hares.
Gran Sasso and Laga Mountains National Park, a protected area In winter, snow-tracking was carried out only in the south- of about ha in central Italy. Research techniques used eastern part of the Park, where at least 4 reproducing packs were wolf-howling and snow-tracking, and in the last two years where detected through wolf-howling.
A set of trails we started using camera trapping. Following the protocol of Harrington were followed until it was possible. The study area was divided into 5 sectors, each one The use of camera trapping was limited to gather additional including howling circuits repeated for 3 consecutive nights.
These additional out in the Park, allowed us to obtain important information about howling sessions were carried out from August to October. On the basis of of use and selection of certain environmental features. Mattioli 4, , Siena, Italy Vigilance behaviour has traditionally been considered as func- comparable between females and young males. In ungulates, information is contradict- behaviour. P central Italy; mid November-March and , Most likely, female fallow deer tended to reduce the predation at feeding, through behavioural observations.
However, when in large groups i. Currently it is endemic only in obtained from cardiac clot of hunted hares were tested. Anyway, the virus did not cause EBHS in a free living hare population occurred, which caused yet relevant mortality rates: Analysis after from passive surveillance to the lab and all of them were tested P this outbreak showed average prevalence higher than negative for both virus and antibodies detection. As a result of this episode, an active monitoring plan These results demonstrate a progressive reduction in antibody in collaboration with forest rangers and local hunting associ- and virus prevalence among hare population in the province of ation has been set.
During the regular hunting seasons, hare Trento from up to now. Collected samples come from samples organs and cardiac clot were collected and serological few reserves of the province and do not represent the whole and virological investigations ELISA tests were performed.
No data are available about hare dead in the study area. In no disease or virus outbreak were identi- a clearer outline of EBHS status. Di Pirro1 , R. Statistical animals were 9. RR was similar between groups. In MK and XK groups, izations and included vomiting and respiratory complications: All recoveries were uneventful. Complete anesthetic Knowledge of the target species biology, trained personnel, deep record, including heart rate HR , respiratory rate RR , rectal knowledge of advantages and disadvantages anesthetic drugs is body temperature T and saturimetry SpO2 , and biometric mandatory during wildlife chemical immobilization.
Adding also the sighting of an individual of Rhinolophus of Pesaro-Urbino, cover ha along the gorge of the Candigli- ferrumequinum the total number of species reaches 12 taxa. After exploration of potential human made and natural their activity with numerous passages on the lake. The territory has been subdivided by land use: Seven species were found in the open open pasture, Mediterranean shrubland, broadleaf wood, xeric pastures and in the woodland edge, 6 at the large lake in the wood with Pinus nigra, river banks, woodland edge, agricultural gorge, as well as in the xeric woods with Pinus nigra and in lands and small or large lakes.
Listening points were settled river banks habitats, and only 5 species in agricultural lands, and repeated sessions of 10 min each were performed using Mediterranean shrublands and broadleaf woods. Pettersson Elektronic Dx and D detectors and recording P. Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Pipistrellus onments for bats as well as to provide important bioindicators kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus serotinus, Nyctalus noctula, of the success of the incoming managing plan of the protected Nyctalus leisleri, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Tadarida teniotis, area.
Myotis daubentonii, Myotis mystacinus e Plecotus cfr. It has been working time of cameras min. However, most of the information in- one camera per point, one type of lure and about 90 working cluded in the Data Forms were based only on expert opinion. To days per camera; in we used a 2. We also collected dead animals along the roads crossing reserves in northern Latium.
We present animals were found in 4 sites. However, detectability was very here only preliminary results of the study. Study sites covered on low. Hair traps never worked. From to the end of we carried out oppor- application of a new sampling design able to solve the problems tunistic survey using one camera per point, with one of three of low detectability and presence and pseudo-absence data. We formulated an habitat suitability model fol- programs as well as compensation for damages to livestock. This region abundance of prey. Our analysis reveals the high suitability of this Region, as well We monitored wolf presence in Liguria from to by the as its inadequate level of protection.
We covered every transect four times a year once a main causes of killed wolves there is wild boar hunting with bay season in order to collect wolf and prey presence signs. The ecological consequences of wildlife disease control Richard J. There is a strong brings to humankind. Beha- manage disease in wildlife populations. Due to the slow growth in vitro The age class distribution of the 99 M. The prevalence changed spatio- derestimated.
In particular, the host risk factors linked with its occurrence. S conservation, for which the presence and spread of a severe dis- Our results show an evident contribution of other mortality ease as mange raises concerns. Therefore, a remarkable amount causes, namely starvation and winter mortality, to the main of data from passive surveillance were collected by the PPPSM mortality peak of sarcoptic mange.
This situation could have wildlife wardens and made available for analyses, in comparison been determinant, amplifying the impact of the mange peak and with the data from the population censuses. Moreover, besides leading the chamois density to values close to the estimated the routine censuses and passive surveillance on the whole park threshold density for the transmission of Sarcoptes scabiei. Celoria 10, Milano As a consequence of the increase in infectious disease emergence vasions. In particular, despite the role played by macropara- in wildlife due to translocations of hosts and pathogens, in recent sites in invasions is often neglected, we show that it should years the interest about the role played by parasites in alien not be underestimated since they have the potential to mediate species settlement and in their interactions with native species interactions between native species and invaders as much as is growing.
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We also show that a complete picture of Here, we used native Eurasian red squirrels Sciurus vulgaris parasites infecting native species is not only essential to detect and alien Eastern grey squirrels S. First, we communities being more susceptible to competition mediated by investigated macroparasite fauna of red squirrels over a wide parasites. Moreover, we demonstrate that the threat is not only geographic area, showing that the species has a poor parasite posed by spillover of introduced parasites resulting in apparent community both in terms of species richness and diversity competition, but that the presence of alien species may also across habitats.
However, in a parallel study on macroparasite fauna of grey squirrels in Northern Italy, demon- S. Nevertheless, des- to test if the presence of grey squirrels leads to an alteration pite the acquisition of some European parasites, the number of of C. We also show that grey squirrels lost is much lower than in their native range, thus supporting the many parasite species during the introduction process, but to test enemy-release hypothesis.
Moreover, our results on Ljun- presence and absence of the alien congener. Our results show gan virus suggest that the role of arboreal sciurids in zoonotic that infection by S. Interestingly, also prevalence of T. Finally, we conducted a survey of thus representing a threat for public health. Ljungan virus and adenovirus infection in both sciurids, extend- In conclusion, we feel that similar, broad surveys on the role ing the host spectrum of Ljungan virus i. Although Eurasian red squirrels sex, and body mass on T. Then, we investigated infection status i. Salvemini, 1, Perugia, Italy Invasive alien species IAS are one of the most important threats ately after euthanasic suppression.
We have sought out following for the conservation of biodiversity, second only to habitat loss pathogens: Adenovirus, Lyssavirus, Borrelia spp. IAS may interact with native species through plasma spp. One of them showed a circular lesion of 1 cm diameter in for human health. A well known case of sanitary interaction the sacral region. The second one showed an evident alopecia between non-native and native species is the poxvirus infection area in the medial part of toes on the right front limb.
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Lesions carried by the alien grey squirrel in the British islands: Some- disease is speeding up the extinction of native red squirrel. No organ may convey to other animals or humans? The presence of the showed signs of malformation. However, the presence of zoonotic agent Trichophyton termine direct contact with humans, we considered interesting mentagrophytes is a warning bell, because the higher number of to investigate the health status of the non-native species and its people that could come in contact with the infected animals, the potential role for public health.
A sanitary risk may be preserve the native ones. Grey squirrels were captured in live- assumed for human in consequence of a direct contact with traps baited with mais and walnuts and euthanasized with CO2 , infected animals or of environmental contamination with fungal in compliance with animal welfare laws. Red squirrels were arthroconidia or spores. Traps and handling Health surveys should become an important tool to identify po- materials were sterilized after each squirrel capture with Virkon tential sources of sanitary public problems in urban areas.
In addition to trapped squirrels, road-kills were collected. Moreover, it is necessary to vestigation. During the necropsy organs, tissues and cutaneous make aware public opinion about the risk posed by grey squirrel, annexes were collected for performing laboratory exams. In not just by a conservation point of view but also for a healthcare addition to the previous samples, some sera were taken immedi- one. Dal Sasso1 , C. For In the last three years a total of wild animals were ana- this reason, the wildlife monitoring on target animals as red fox lyzed: We report the results of the wildlife martes and beech martens, 5 brown bears Ursus arctos monitoring for Trichinella sp.
Compar- , and Di Pirro1 , E. In questo modo, attraverso attuazione. Questo lavoro, ted e R recovered. The project is focused on the transmission of patho- The bibliographic research underlined that the topics of gens at the interface between wildlife, domestic animal and hu- predator-prey interaction in a multi prey system and predator mans, giving particular relevance to the transmission of zoonotic functional response consequences for parasite transmission are Echinococcus multilocularis.
The parasite transmission relies both areas still largely unexplored. This study lay the foundation for the design of a model of In particular we analyze the case of urban coyote functional predator-prey interaction in a complex multi prey system. Such response in Calgary, focusing on prey species that are competent a model would permit to assess plasticity of predation behaviour for Echinococcus multilocularis.
For this aim we have elab- consequences for the transmission of an important zoonotic as orated diet data correlation to small mammal preys abundance Echinococcus multilocularis. It is now endemic in 27 European countries, forest management and the rise of ungulate population. Spatial S and has been declared an international public health problem. We collected samples of more that development and reproduction of animals. Several researches 50 marked individuals aged from 2 to 17 years.
In order to evaluate the hierarch- late males. It is also proven its direct correlation with aggressive ical order of individuals, we recorded all agonistic interactions and agonistic behaviours; consequently a lot of studies have been with ad libitum observations. Another class submissive displays was used to assess the winner of the dispute. From May to October current reproduction related to maintaining high social rank of two years we monitored testosterone and cortisol positions. In particular, health issues related to its zoonotic value. Therefore in Italy the attention should pointing out an equal infection in these age classes supporting be focused on red deer Cervus elaphus because of the intense the hypothesis of a high level of environmental contamination.
Calves did not contract little is known about the epidemiology of T. Besides no assessments are reported about T. The recorded development of foetus. Further analysis are park, for each subject age, sex, location and morpho-biometric needed to evaluate the distribution, densities and T. Frangipane di Regalbono1 , M. Limited data are published on lung- other protostongylid genera showed lower prevalence values: The few studies available on lungworms of alpine ibex and 2 1.
No samples were found positive Capra ibex reported the presence of protostrongylid infection, to dictyocaulids genera. After standing for h, the from the analysis and comparing only kids and adult females. Liquid in the tube was gently mixed and 1 ml indicative of an aggregated distribution. The measure of parasite tion of eggs output. Our study developed a possible approach for aggregation was obtained estimating the parameter k of the neg- this kind of studies, adding useful information to the knowledge ative binomial distribution.
Mantini, 15, , Pescara, Italy, e-mail stgiglio libero. Il Decreto, oltre ad 10 soggetti The ultimate goal of the complex system of relationships existing between the distribu- research project is to develop a predictive model of infection risk. The epidemiology of these vector- distribution and associated pathogens Babesia sp. Potranno quindi essere presentati lavori che riguardano nuove tecniche di studio delle specie sul campo o in condizioni controllate es.
The Bayesian approach is also particularly ation of advanced and rigorous statistical analysis and modeling suitable in ecological research, it can handle multiple sources techniques in the pursuit of robust inference. Models are now of data and uncertain information in a coherent framework and Opening Lecture recognised as a requirement for a proper quantitative understand- also easily incorporate simulating mechanistic models. This ing of ecological mechanisms and also for assisting decision approach is however more challenging as one cannot simply making for management.
Worth formalise the likelihood of the data and write i. The increased availability of most appropriate ones and models need instead to be tailored specialized analytical software hiding the complexity of Monte made for a particular question and data. There are various Carlo Markov Chains is therefore of great help in overcoming statistical paradigms allowing us to use models. The most ubi- this challenge.
My talk will provide a gentle introduction to quitous one is the frequentist one but a powerful alternative one ecological modelling, pedagogically present the Bayesian reas- — the Bayesian paradigm — has recently gathered interest and oning and how it can be applied to ecological questions while gained support among quantitative ecologists.
The Bayesian being aware of its caveats, and end up with a plea to embrace a approach is particularly intuitive as it adopts a way of thinking Bayesian metamorphosis. An alternative nonparametric solution is proposed in ing the portions of use vs the portions of availability observed the framework of multiple testing. The habitat use is assessed in samples of radio-tagged animals for each habitat type. Since separately for each habitat type by the sign test performed on the M data are linearly dependent with singular variance-covariance original observations.
The resulting p-values are combined in an matrices, standard multivariate statistical test cannot be applied. Applications to some case stud- tions. The procedure is criticized in this paper, emphasizing the ies are considered. Body mass and to obtain ecological data, for instance as density, abundance of females kg were extracted from the PanTheria database for and demographic parameters.
The majority of Felidae species each species. On a reduced ively for felids to build individual capture histories. Using a digital terrain patterns: Analyst for ArcGIS Daily precipitations increasing slope and precipitation, and increased with increasing mm were obtained from the nearest weather station Regional sky view. Our analyses targeted the following individual and previous studies were mainly pattern based and did not provide population-level parameters: The goal of our population growth rate. We sampled a total of populations. Di Vittorio1 , J. Angelici3 1 Ecologia Applicata Italia s.
We selected a grid composed by cells of mammals in Africa. This species is adaptable to extreme envir- 6 km side as Minimum Utilized Home Range, obtained using the onments, also inhabits semi-desert habitat, swamp and marshy NNds nearest neighbor distances values between sightings. We areas, open woodland, dense dry woodland, and montane forest used Generalized Linear Models GLZs to model spotted hy- up to m altitude.
There are scattered populations from aena habitat preferences. A forward stepwise regression proced- West to South Africa with the latter having larger populations. The decomposition of the gion of the country. The by means of a partial regression analysis. Regarding the land- park is large and remote, therefore range camps are strategically use subset of variables fourth level of CORINE Land Cover located in each range to enhance surveillance. Regard the topographic than other carnivores.
Data were collec- creased with the elevation a. This helped obtained current data as to where function of latitude is the best predictor. According to the hier- in the park spotted hyaenas occurred. Grids forming components and land-use variables and spatial components and cells were laid over a map of MNP.
Within the selected cells topographic variables. To ensure sampling across changing veget- a range of ecological factors, including vegetation. The most parsimonious explanatory mod- of each transect were extracted and noted. A total of spotted els suggests that the spotted hyaena in MNP prefers low eleva- hyaena observations were made by sightings, scats, foot tracks tion areas surrounded by grassland and low wooded landscape, and other trails.
These observations were standardized and geo- avoiding high woodland areas of continuous forest, riverine ve- referenced on a GIS digital shape. For our analyses, 20 Universal getation and burned bush.. We then compared the results of the two mod- conservation biology. These results also highlight it to simulate virtual species by sampling from a trait space how simplistic dispersal assumptions and models, often applied following a bayesian approach. Virtual species traits are inter- in conservation science, can greatly under- or over-estimate correlated and lie within the range of values observed in real mammals abilities to track climate change.
SEPM, starting from loss at the global scale. Vulnerability map was realized through been already possible to record biodiversity impacts, with the command r. Currently, just a few reports of map with vulnerability one. Therefore the goal of the work is assessing the risk from a Risk maps highlight two regional areas that appear at higher human activity point of view related to the future spread of the risk in the short-medium term: Alta Valle del Tevere and the alien grey squirrel in the Umbria region.
The areas Bevagna and Montefalco. Possible future impacts will concern of potential presence of the grey squirrel in Umbria represent the especially three sectors: Map of probability was one. For this purpose, it is necessary to involve all stakeholders, performed through two steps: Populations descending from human- berland and East Anglia, UK.
Across the invaded range in from a greater number of founders. There is a trend areas, were sampled and examined at 12 highly polymorphic whereby larger founder sizes were associated with greater ge- microsatellite loci. We also estimated migration rates and range expan- important management implications for controlling spread rate sion rates. Our results show that genetic diversity varied in of squirrels and other invasive species: For prioritize preventing further releases and the merging of genet- instance, the Italian population had the smallest founder size ically distinct populations as these events can augment genetic and lowest genetic variability whereas Northumberland had high diversity.
On the basis of carnivores. As many social canid species use howling for territ- spectrographic evidence it has been possible to identify up to ory ownership, one of the main canid monitoring technique is six contemporaneous voices, while aural estimation is frequently M the howling survey. However, in mostly of the cases, howling uncertain and failed to count more than three, four animals. Acoustic species, particularly for vocalizations used during social inter- communication is widely used by rodents during a wide range actions.
Di Febbraro3 , H. De Pasquale8 , A. However, biotic interactions are equivalency. Models achieved a high predictive performance often disregarded in models exploring species distribution. We found what follows: Bats represent interesting model species to test the not sympatric with R. According to a model of niche displacement, the niche We focus on two bat species, the Mediterranean Rhinolophus of Sardinian R. The two populations from peninsular Italy and Sicily; this diver- species have similar morphology, both often roost in caves and gence reduces the overlap with R.
In Italy, with the numerically dominant R. Scattered niche displacement in Sardinian R. On the contrary, by an acoustic character displacement process which had been R. Di Febbraro1 , D. The western part of the taken into account. To address this issue we developed a regional region was highlighted as the hot spot of bat species and needs scale landscape analysis based on Species Distribution Models careful consideration in future wind farm planning.
We observed SDM built on presence data for sensitive bat species in an area important commuting corridors for N. The AICc values indicated the full model between human activities and wildlife presence, particularly without interactions as the most parsimonious, and this model when dealing with threatened species in countries with high was extrapolated to the entire study area.
To avoid extrapolating human population densities. The spe- the available points of presence, we performed a multivariate en- cies still survives in a relict population in the central Apennines vironmental similarity surface analysis, whose results provided with no more than 50 animals surviving in the PNALM and a clear indication of the extrapolability of our model to the its surrounding areas.
Wild boar hunting, among other human entire study area. As wild boar The continuous Boyce index 0. The conditions during hyperphagy. We hereby illustrate a model of AUC value calculated for the same model gave a relatively low habitat suitability for the Apennine brown bear during the hyper- value 0. Distance to forest edges, elevation and beech forests in the analyses all municipalities touched by these areas. Consequently, the areas with the highest suitability for only the minimum convex polygon built around the available the species are all located in mountains with forests, avoiding bear locations, thus considering only the areas that have been elevations much above meters and extensive open areas.
The the continuous probability values. We believe our application of SDMs for the endangered calibration only locations at least m or 24 hours apart from Apennine bear population to inform hunting management, and the previous available location.
All other records were used the functional integration of the model output within a particip- in model evaluation. Assessing these com- other sources. While a chronic gap per- guilds, with herbivores being more detectable than other guilds. The study shows Mountains of Tanzania, an area of exceptional importance for that camera trap data analysed with account for imperfect de- mammal diversity, to propose an example of baseline assess- tection can provide solid and conservation-relevant ecological ment.
We used 60 camera trap locations and cumulated 1, assessments of mammal communities, suitable to standardiza- camera days in Sampling yielded 10, images of 26 tion across sites. Ruscitti Environment Committee P. The Southeastern region of the province has been describe the phenomenon in its minimum certain size. In the The processing of the data gave the following results: On several occasions roe deers space the dogs a few and to supply meat to consume or to sell; in the 1.
So, when necessary, by issuing pulses the 15 teams have not made the poaching of the species. These events, seemingly in performance of hunting. Assuming a homogeneous distribution of the species illegally. The small size of the roe deer, moreover, favours the and poaching in all areas of wild boar hunting, and considering simple concealment and easy transport of the carcasses. The following data are an average density of about 0. The sample, consisting of teams willing and consolidation of the species.
The damages to rabbits, deers and pigs are absolutely mentation of a viable strategy for the conservation of the species, unprecedented in the studied area. In the province of Rieti during the never previously recorded: The damages have involved case occurred in , still in the municipality of Amatrice. A total The examination of the reports, from which the above data have of head has been preyed, broken down by species in the been derived, has also shown a widespread lack of clarity and following way: In particular, among the most 5.
The municipalities important elements it was found that: It is not clear how, despite these defects, , goats 12, pigs 4.
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It is believed that the return of the reports in April and July The cases involving cattle are particularly relevant. These situations of Rieti where wolf and stray dogs coexist and Oristano where occurred: In the actual lack of knowledge on the status of higher than those in the studied area, where there are no events the species this information is far from irrelevant. A careful attributed to stray dogs.
Later, because of land cover changes deforestation and rutting males were detected in the slopes of Mount Nuria. In the which the publication of the , but referred to the situation province of Rieti in the early s was still present in a public in , in the province of Rieti the red deer is reported only fenced area Secordaro in Sabina and reported as a localized in RNRMD.
At that date also some events heads conducted by the Natural Reserve of Monte Velino AQ , of poaching on the western side of Nuria are reported by the CFS the species reappeared in the south-eastern portion of the study and by the local police, that also reported the presence of some area. The habitat suitability of in the areas most suitable for the species in the municipalities the eastern areas of province of Rieti favoured the rapid increase of Poggio Bustone Cantalice and Rivodutri.
In these territories of the population. Thus, in the Regional Natural Reserve of the the majority of reports and the discovery of abundant signs of Duchessa Mountains hereinafter RNRMD the 16 heads estim- its presence are reported. In these areas are set opportunistic P ated in increased up to about heads estimated in The surveys were the area, regarding the structure of the population in wintering conducted by camera trapping to verify the actual presence of areas , and the impact on the forest area.
The strong increase of the species , and listening sessions in the season of rut to check the population, which manifests itself recursively in the season whether the site is also a reproductive one. The phenomenon has been achieved rotated out of 36 points, opportunistically selected on the basis through the valley of Malito, an area of important ecological of the indications and signs of the presence, in 3 consecutive connection RNRMD adjacent to where the deer is present with a rounds.
The process of listening was carried out for a month stable and consistent population. The process of colonization of to start from September 10, In left bank of the river moun- and of the total area to be monitored. Field activity was carried tains Navegna and Cervia the expansion process is hampered by out by 5 operators working simultaneously, the frequency of ecological barriers present near the centre of dispersal highway sessions was each 3 days covering all workstations with 2 rounds.
In the monitored area sporadic, observations are due to erratic subjects in connection the abundance was not estimated but the presence of deer of with the original core area of RNRMD. No reproductive activity was observed. At the Mountains Cava, Fratta and Nuria. Since the beginning of the present time the distribution of red deer in the province of Rieti early s, in the middle valley of the Salto the presence of is expanding and some groups still non-reproductive are now signs and sightings of red deer have become more frequent.
There mediterranean sites and P. Co-occurrence such patterns in generalist insectivorous vertebrate communities. In the areas to the north of the ulations that are fragmented and often isolated from one an- park, in fact, although these conserve natural characteristics of other, with virtually no ecological connection. In addition, lion some importance, surveillance is less developed, and poaching, populations are generally declining.
In some recent reports, in unfortunately, is still widespread. The aim of this individuals. In April seriously threatened. Additional records ing operations, in part already active, includes: The other predators; population of Ghana is geographically situated in a key location, 3. It will be used both the roar of adult male lion, the Senegal-Guinea-Mali and the core of most easterly of Nigeria- call of the spotted hyaena, and the lowing of the western Benin-Burkina Faso. Attempt to capture if this will be compatible with the of males in the central region of the park. In addition, during health and size of the population , some individual, and August was sighted very clearly an adult male by a guard application of satellite collars in order to be able to control during his service at the entrance of the park, in the south por- their movements and ecology.
For this reason the control in some of the most sensitive areas for bear protection. The habitat of the Apennine brown bear Ursus of the Park and the surrounding areas. On the basis missible to wildlife. Canine distemper is a viral disease, particularly conta- ular made possible an early start of the immunization campaign gious, that strikes mostly juveniles. Results shows a remarkably exposure of within Apennine brown bear area. The preliminary results have which class represents the primary hazard. As a general rule, in ruminants number, size and but the former was the most frequent in , whereas composition of groups should vary according to population the latter was most frequent in Moreover, the class density.
These results do not change much if expect corresponding changes in social structure, particularly we take into account the possible bias due to the number of in group number and mean group size. To test this hypothesis one-male groups that, for any reason, may have been sighted we analyze the detailed summer data on group size and com- more frequently in one year than in another one-male groups position collected in and those collected in represent on average The study area their proportion showed a clear positive trend in On the other hand, female group number of chamois groups were recorded.
Sex These results outline the complex relationship between social and age class of each individual were noted to study group structure and population density and are consistent with what composition and population structure. Local population density generally reported in literature. Raw data in other words to a more scattered distribution of chamois in the were log-transformed.
We found a positive correla- cordance among herds Kendall Concordance, 0. Population density accounted for Veneto 2, La Spezia, e-mail provsp.
P ted with questionnaire. People with an highest educational standard showed more pos- wolf social role in our environment, ecology and biology of itive attitudes toward wolf, on the contrary, they had a poor Italian wolf population, and the level relationship and direct knowledge about biology and behaviour of wolf. This aspect experience with the wolf. On the secondary school, and people belonging to several stakeholder contrary, farmers and hunters got information by newspaper and associations cultural, sportive, agriculture, breeding and hunt- direct cultural transmission.
Nevertheless, if we consider the whole sample of questionnaires, Analysis were conducted at two levels: Apollonio Department of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Sassari, Via Muroni 25, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy Although facultative scavenging is very common behavior, little scavengers species were a mesopredator, the red fox, an apex is known about the factors that modulate the carcasses utiliz- predator, the wolf, and an omnivorous ungulate, the wild boar.
Fieldwork was conducted from July the most important factors in describing the scavenging behavior to June ; a total of 27 carcasses were monitored during of wolf.
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With this work, we suggest that the carcasses use is not a the study period through camera trapping technique. A total of random process but it is modulate by abiotic factors, but further 80 inspections were conducted and 7 species of scavengers were studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms at the recorded at carcasses: The three main basis of scavenging behavior in our study area.
Congiuntamente predazione hanno permesso di riferirla a sciacallo dorato. Dopo tali episodi, gli ovini sono stati ricoverati ogni notte turno. Sono state esaminate tre carcasse di ovini trovati morti in in ovile chiuso e protetto. Francesco di Sales , Carmagnola TO , e-mail teriologi gmail. Thus, the water dangered Mediterranean bats. Although the synthesis of DDT ended in , the colonies. Bats are particularly vulnerable to these and similar organochlor- Colony size, monitored during the last 14 years by annual counts ine OC compounds, which have been recognized as one of total number of individuals, excluding juveniles varied in the the severe causes of the dramatic declines in bat populations range of individuals.
Demographic trend over the same occurred in the 50ss. Some negative urine and feces. Nevertheless, other causes contaminant loads occurring in bats. Lake Since the recorded OC levels are not negligible, in order to go Maggiore represents a large foraging area for the individuals of deeper into the possible causes of the colony decrease, a monit- the colony, which can be observed chasing close to the water oring program concerning the contamination seems necessary. Dunant 3, I Varese, Italy Among Mammals, bats represent the order with the largest num- emissions across group of species or species level.
As all bat species in Concerning group of species, only Plecotus spp. The use of mistnets allows to determine the Nyctalus group that show similar pattern of captures across the P species and the number of individuals captured, instead the use two methods. Two Barbastella barbastellus, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii, species Barbastella barbastellus and Tadarida teniotis have P. Both methods are reliable: The consump- the bank vole Myodes glareolus, however, little is known about tion of the food items was checked regularly in the following 24 the seasonal food selection of these sympatric species in ther- hours.
The results revealed that some plant species e. The order in which the fruits were consumed style feeding experiment. We found a distinct overlap of trophic niche among the ics. The most frequent P Macedonia during the period April — October We visited species were Rhinolophus ferrumequinum 8 sites , Miniopterus western, south-western and eastern parts of Serbia belonging to schreibersii and R. Bats were caught using mist net placed with M. Results of this research provide new records about distribution In total, we caught individuals belonging to 12 bat spe- of bat species, community compositions and ecology related to cies: The effectiveness of supplemental feeding sites for roe deer Capreolus capreolus , with reference to box trapping success rate and winter space use F.
The access to food in proper feeding sites is periodically value food. This particularly applies to those species that need to continu- In this work we focus on an alpine population of roe deer, in P ously feed to satisfy their energetic requirements because they Trentino North-Eastern Italian Alps; Val Rendena, Valli Gi- have limited ability to store fat reserves.
These physiological udicarie , where supplemental feeding practice has been carried traits are typical of the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus , out in the medium term from 20 to few years. We performed a small cervid distributed from Mediterranean to Scandinavia, roe deer captures with box trapping technique over two winter across a variety of landscapes and climates. Moreover, they are not particularly ation linked to a variety of factors, such as weather conditions adapted to harsh winter conditions, especially deep snow cover and topographic distribution of traps.
Moreover, we show the and low temperatures which increase the basal metabolic rate. Tellini Florenzano1 , P. At the same time few individuals of Myotis blythii, R. The mine consists of an undergorund part, with present. Series of visits were out the tunnel, when also the young of the year area going out to organized to visually verify the presence in the mine tunnels, as forage. P well as the use of infrared cameras and thermal cameras to count To provide information on other species and to check any sort animals at the exits.
In the sum- M. Investigation on the source of genetic introgression in two Italian wild boar populations A. A strong genetic divergence between wild size of the corresponding CP were created. In some cases, such Both captive populations had lower allelic richness than the changes are obtained through crossbreeding with the domestic corresponding wild population, but a similar expected hetero- counterpart.
Domestic genes introgressed in this way into cap- zygosity. In none of the Hybridization between wild boar Sus scrofa and domestic pig subsets of 9 individuals randomly selected within the PIE- occurred in the past and still occurs today, having strong evolu- WP, the mean Q resulted lower than or equal to the PIE-CP thus, tionary and management implications. In Sardinia, instead, both the rate and immunology in wild boar, with likely demographic wild and captive populations showed moderate signs of intro- impacts.
In out of hybridization occurs in Sus scrofa. With this role in Sardinia, while intentional hybridization in captivity is purpose, we analyzed microsatellite loci in wild boar sampled in the major source of introgression in Piedmont. Accordingly, in breeding stations and in the local wild population in two Italian several areas of Sardinia an illegal husbandry system occur, with regions Sardinia, SAR, and Piedmont, PIE. Additionally, for the two datasets of wild boar captive populations, coupled with reference data separately, the Bayesian clustering algorithm implemented in on the neighbouring wild populations, to prevent the spread of STRUCTURE was used to infer individual genetic ancestry and domestic genes in wild populations.
Forconi Studio faunistico Chiros, Macerata, e-mail chiros. The estimation of the red deer population size in the research- In and , three techniques were adopted to monitor intensive area was carried out relating the number of male adults the red deer population: In this way, it was possible to constant. November in the same area where the roaring stags census Playback technique was tested in to estimate red deer pop- had taken place. The deer may be present at low density. The playback technique allowed to extrapolate the structure of the population. Those acoustic emissions aim at stimulating the The camera traps have been operating for camera-trapping response of male adults and sub-adults during the rutting season.
The percentage stations during 11 evenings of adequate weather conditions. The application of this technique allowed the reception of 5 In , 47 stations were monitored over a For each census between 11 and 16 nique for small populations or in low-density areas. Bats are long-lived and selective for habitat type and II B. Captures have been used to rence of rare species, including barbastelles, in the country. Valli da Todi, e-mail croman97 libero. Presenza che ha raggiunto il minimo storico in Umbria, come Fanno riferimento a varie tipologie di presenza es.
For this purpose withdrawals has been programmed P mosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis and borreliosis. For such pourposes further monitoring campaigns ml. The intravenous access from the lateral saphenous vein is in Italy from the 90s on live hares were carried out with blood based on the tonsure of the distal part of the thigh, compression samples from venules of the outer side of the ear, with methods of the proximal part, easy puncture and moderate negative pres- in order to improve the visibility of the venule and facilitate the sure, possible reactivation of compression for a supplementary aspiration.
While the amount of haemoserum obtained have intake and a short squeeze to obtain a complete hemostasis. IX Congresso Italiano di Teriologia Adequacy of the Italian network of protected areas in conserving populations of terrestrial mammals G. Protected area able habitat for each species within the network, and the relative networks may allow species to persist in fragmented landscape importance of each site and dispersion areas for connectivity.
The Italian We then aggregated species results to identify protected areas network of protected areas has been assessed for coverage, rep- and connection areas that are especially relevant for preserving P resentation and irreplaceability, but it has never been assessed the connectivity of Italian terrestrial mammals. We analysed the connectivity of the Italian Here we discuss the adequacy of the current network of protected network of protected area for terrestrial mammals in order to areas, dispersing areas and stepping stones that require conser- detect species, sites and areas that require conservation attention.
The present work is intended to within the extent of occurrence of each species by weighting inform and support the planning and management of the Italian species suitable habitat. We estimated dispersal distance for network of protected areas. Here we present results of the use of the also permit to assess, based on recognition of specimens, con- technique in the Corno alle Scale Regional Park. Also 2 reproductions, 2 young with sarcoptic mange and hectares.
Covered mainly by broadleaf forest, above all the presence of a non reproductive couple with non-conventional beech forests, reach in creeks, is characterized on the ridge dark fur female on the border of the main herd were also docu- by snowing peaks, high altitude glacial cirques, and mountain mented. Small villages are scattered present in the valleys. Considering the number of photo shoots, the most numerous 8 camera traps Scout Guard and Boly Guard were positioned species was S. In a total of night 4 , C. Discharged the About the behaviours, mainly thanks to movie detection, the empty frames, pictures were used.
Activity and behavioral search for food were also collected as demostration of the valid- categories were also put in the database. Among ungulates Sus scrofa, Dama dama, Cervus can by apply to monitoring all large vertebrate in the park and elaphus, Capreolus capreolus, Ovis musimon and also Lepus in particular can be used to follow the groups of wolves in their europaeus and Buteo buteo. All the known species of large local evolution.
IX Congresso Italiano di Teriologia Elaborazione delle misure di conservazione dei mammiferi di interesse comunitario nei siti della Rete Natura della provincia di Bologna O. De Curtis1 , D. Tutela Naturalistica, e-mail ornella. All together camera traps worked for trap-days populations in a mountainous area about hectares of during summer and autumn.
The study was included in tracking surveys in winter in total approximately km on 3 more extended Environmental Impact Assessment concerning paths one for each sub-area located opportunistically, walking the construction of a dam on the river Menta So. We along them h after snowfall in order to locate wolf tracks used several methods such as observing natural signs footprints, and scats. Pups covering a total of km. Il ri- andando a recuperare porzioni del suo originario areale peninsu- corso al foto-video trappolaggio come metodologia utilizzata lare. In the recent past, large epidemics were re- employing a double vaccination strategy.
The campaigns were gistered in several European Countries and currently the disease carried out in cooperation with the faunistic service of Perugia is still reported in the territories of Russian Federation and other Province and the support of hunters equips leaded by the owners neighboring countries. Moreover, the occurrence of CSF in wild of the farms; the baiting activities were carried out under the populations is particularly worrying because the eradication of control of camera traps.
The antibody preval- vaccinated animals DIVA. Understandably, the use of marker ence reached These results vaccines could improve the knowledge of vaccination dynam- were within the limits of our expectation and are comparable ics. The under laboratory conditions. For example, in the for days and are regularly used by canids nightime even in considered dairy farm of 90 lactating cows with approx. In the time 40 calves and heifers in the two last years the cows calved all P interval elapsed between a carcass and the next was on aver- the year long and with an average interval of days, although age approx.
Perhaps this frequent availability of fetal adnexa could be documented consumption of about kg achieved in just an element of stable interest for the wolves, encouraging them in one night. The farmer attributed the consumption to a big dog frequenting place as dairy farms and make them take advantage in the neighborhood that often joined his German shepherd but also of even more rare events, such as the storage of carcasses the site of storage of the carcasses actually showed an animal and habituating them to situations even of particular disorder.
In path consistently beaten by large canids that came from a grove fact, the considered far is located next to a main road, with about about meters away from the farm. Dal Zotto2 , L. Consequently, it hunting plan since As in the past, the animal was an investigation has started in order to identify farms or detention adult male, weighing kg.
The collaborative attitude of sites of Sika deer from which the specimens could have escaped. Additional tests will determine whether Romagna, Marche, Lombardia and Liguria regions. However some apparently pure European deer shot may in fact derive specimens escaped in from a farm in the mountains from introgression from Sika or not. The genetic surveys based of southern Emilia-Romagna region. A variable degree of on microsatellites analysis, in cooperation between Czech and hybridization between Scottish Red deer Cervus elaphus Italian laboratories, are in progress. Giulio Sola of the Province of Modena and Dr.
Eduard Gassebner and Mr. The stomach of the adult actually showed a small some wild boar Sus scrofa in trouble in the high snow that amount of a dark mush that apparently looked like a mixture lingered the local mountains since several weeks; after some of potting soil and rotted wood. Also it was registered a strong attents to rescue them only some carcasses were found scattered pediculosis. Other carcasses less precisely reported in the autumn. Few other episodes were reported in the woodlands same area were not found.
The wildboars were as crouched of nearby municipalities but without available informations to in the snow without fresh paths around them; after recovery retrieve the carcasses.
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For all the four subjects Acknowledgements: Di Clemente3 , M. From to , this bear moved across an area of and the renewed attention for the conservation of the Apennine km2 in SNP, excluding a portion of Valnerina, km brown bear, more structured and coordinated initiatives to record southwest from its closest locations in the SNP. After 2 May bear presence have been recently activated in the peripheral por- , we never collected further evidence of bear presence in tions of the Apennine bear range, in particular in the Sibillini Na- the SNP.
In the Sibillini National Park, bear presence and 25 October , respectively, at 76 km from the closest was detected since using hair traps and remote IR cameras, sampling location in SNP. On 16 January , an adult male opportunistically placed in areas of most recent bear presence. Genetic analyses of multilocus genotype successively revealed to match that of bear hair and faecal DNR only samples were conducted in the Con- G Forty percent of collected hair samples in the SNP might have for bears dispersing across the Apennines.
Monit- were used for genetic analyses, 20 of which were successively oring dispersal by Apennine bears outside the core range is of scored, and all were assigned to a single bear genotype G70 crucial importance to obtain empirical evidence of functional which was never sampled before.