Bahrain from the Twentieth Century to the Arab Spring (Middle East Today)

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Islam, State, and Modernity Zaid Eyadat. Turkish Foreign Policy Hasan Kosebalaban. The Gulen Movement Salih Cingillioglu. Review Text "Miriam Joyce's Bahrain from the Twentieth Century to the Arab Spring offers unparalleled insights into the island nation's history over the past century. For those wishing to understand the evolution of the Persian Gulf region and the legacy of the superpowers in it, this volume is essential reading. Review quote "Miriam Joyce's Bahrain from the Twentieth Century to the Arab Spring offers unparalleled insights into the island nation's history over the past century.

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Christmas posting dates Learn more. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community. The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the geopolitical importance of the region being recognized for millennia. The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia , and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent.

Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil , with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports.

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Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta , as well as its Gibraltar ; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security.

The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden , India, and the Persian Gulf. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India. The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia e. China , Japan , Korea , etc. With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in , "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world.

However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history , where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East , which is not used by these disciplines see Ancient Near East. The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the Eisenhower Doctrine , which pertained to the Suez Crisis.

The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. Use Middle East unless Near East is used by a source in a story. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred. There are terms similar to Near East and Middle East in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally.

The designation, Mashriq , also from the Arabic root for East , also denotes a variously defined region around the Levant , the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world as opposed to the Maghreb , the western part. In modern-day-country terms they are these:.

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Near East, Levant and Fertile Crescent are geographic concepts, which refer to large sections of the modern defined Middle East, with Near East being the closest to Middle East in its geographic meaning. Due to it primarily being Arabic speaking, the Maghreb region of North Africa is sometimes included. The Greater Middle East was a political term coined by the second Bush administration in the first decade of the 21st century, [25] to denote various countries, pertaining to the Muslim world , specifically Iran , Turkey , Afghanistan and Pakistan.


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Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area. However, it would be the later Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages , or Islamic Golden Age which began with the Arab conquest of the region in the 7th century AD, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant Islamic ethnic identity that largely but not exclusively persists today. The modern Middle East began after World War I , when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the Central Powers , was defeated by the British Empire and their allies and partitioned into a number of separate nations, initially under British and French Mandates.

Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in and the eventual departure of European powers, notably Britain and France by the end of the s. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States from the s onwards. In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance.

During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers and their allies: Besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [ Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict particularly between Sunnis and Shiites.

Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the Middle East, followed by Turkic people. For the period between the s and s, the Arab states of the PersianGulf in particular provided a rich source of employment for workers from Egypt, Yemen and the countries of the Levant, while Europe had attracted young workers from North African countries due both to proximity and the legacy of colonial ties between Franceand the majority of North African states.

Expatriates from Arab countries contribute to the circulation of financial and human capital in the region and thus significantly promote regional development. In Arab countries received a total of A fair proportion of those migrating from Arab nations are from ethnic and religious minorities facing racial and or religious persecution and are not necessarily ethnic Arabs, Iranians or Turks. In Iran, many religious minorities such as Christians , Baha'is and Zoroastrians have left since the Islamic Revolution of The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to religions , many of which originated there.

Bahrain profile - Timeline

Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths that originated there, such as Judaism and Christianity , are also well represented. The five top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic , Persian , Turkish , Kurdish , and Hebrew. Arabic and Hebrew represent the Afro-Asiatic language family. Persian and Kurdish belong to the Indo-European language family. Turkish belongs to Turkic language family.

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About 20 minority languages are also spoken in the Middle East. Arabic, with all its dialects, are the most widely spoken languages in the Middle East, with Literary Arabic being official in all North African and in most West Asian countries. Arabic dialects are also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages. Another Semitic language such as Aramaic and its dialects are spoken mainly by Assyrians and Mandaeans.

There is also a Oasis Berber -speaking community in Egypt where the language is also known as Siwa. It is a non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic language. Persian is the second most spoken language. While it is primarily spoken in Iran and some border areas in neighbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the family of Indo-European languages. Other Western Iranic languages spoken in the region include Achomi , Daylami , Kurdish dialects, Semmani , Lurish , amongst many others.

The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish , is largely confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries, but it is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member of the Turkic languages , which have their origins in Central Asia. Another Turkic language, Azerbaijani , is spoken by Azerbaijanis in Iran.

Hebrew is one of the two official languages of Israel , the other being Arabic.

Bahrain from the Twentieth Century to the Arab Spring by Miriam Joyce (Hardback, 2012)

English is commonly taught and used as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes , in countries such as Egypt , Jordan , Iran , Kurdistan , Iraq , Qatar , Bahrain , United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. French is taught and used in many government facilities and media in Lebanon , and is taught in some primary and secondary schools of Egypt and Syria. Maltese , a Semitic language mainly spoken in Europe, is also used by the Franco-Maltese diaspora in Egypt.

Armenian and Greek speakers are also to be found in the region. Georgian is spoken by the Georgian diaspora. Russian is spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, because of emigration in the late s. Russian today is a popular unofficial language in use in Israel ; news, radio and sign boards can be found in Russian around the country after Hebrew and Arabic.

Circassian is also spoken by the diaspora in the region and by almost all Circassians in Israel who speak Hebrew and English as well. Overall, as of [update] , according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth. The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait , others have a highly diverse economic base such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt.

Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles.


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  • Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain. With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, in part because of the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East.

    In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater number of tourists because of improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies. The total regional unemployment rate in , according to the International Labour Organization , was From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Middle East disambiguation. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Middle Eastern countries by population.

    Near East and Greater Middle East.